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Nutrient Management

The contributing role played by different nutrients such as Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potash, Sulpher and other secondary elements in increasing the unit area productivity of land is well-recognized. But due to the modern intensive cultivation practices, which include hybrids and high yielding crop varieties which are highly fertilizer responsive results in the removal of these highly essential plant growth nutrients from the soil in greater proportions. Normally these nutrients are supplied in the form of chemical carrier salts defined as fertilizers. These chemical fertilizers are often detrimental to the beneficial microbes in the soil which are known to play a vital role in maintaining soil health and some of them facilitates supply of these necessary nutrients to the plants as well. It has therefore become imperative that the deficient soils be replenished with these beneficial microorganisms otherwise called as Bio-fertilizers. Bio fertilizers are carrier-based microbes containing live or latent cells of efficient strains of Nitrogen fixing, phosphate solublising and cellulolytic microorganisms. These microorganisms accelerate certain microbial processes that facilitate the availability of nutrients in a form, which can be easily absorbed by the plants.

Unlike chemical fertilizers, these biofertilizers are based on different cultures of specific bacteria and fungus that does not directly supply the nutrients to the plant, but fix the atmospheric Nitrogen, which in turn increases the Nitrogen supply to the crop; solubilize the insoluble phosphate in the soil into soluble phosphate and thus improve the phosphate availability to the plants; in addition to mobilizing and making available the minerals like Iron, Sulphur and many more to plants; further fungus like Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (VAM) increase the nutrient uptake, particularly phosphorous, zinc and other micronutrients. It has been demonstrated that the hyphae of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorhizal - fungal symbions, permeate the soil and obtain scarce and relatively immobile elements, especially phosphorous, copper and zinc more effectively than the root hairs of a normal non-mycorhizal infected plant roots. These Bio-fertilizers, which are eco-friendly, economical and easy to apply, play an important role in nutrient management, especially in the Integrated Nutrient Management system. The Bio-fertilizers are broadly classified into Nitrogen fixers, Phosphorus solublizers, Potash solublizers, Iron solublizers, Sulphur solublizers and the like. Stanes' Bio-fertilizer preparations contain specific, efficient strains of these beneficial microorganisms.

Water Management

Water is the most important agricultural input. It is needed for maintaining proper crop health and optimal biological processes in different segments of metabolic activities in plants.

Agriculturally potent water is becoming scarce nowadays. To overcome the stress arising out of water scarcity and to economize on water usage, different water conservation approaches like drip irrigation, fogging, furrow irrigation, mulching etc., are practiced.

Water loss through transpiration is one of the main causes of loss of water from the soil through the plants. Reduction in the loss of water through transpiration can contribute towards sizeable water conservation which is equivalent to, if not better than, other systems adopted. This can be done either through reflecting excess sunlight falling on the leaves or through controlling the stomatal movement leading to, maintaining the turgidity (relative water content of the cells). The process of water conservation through reduction in transpiration can be termed as physiological water conservation in plants.

Green Miracle is an eco-friendly, non-hazardous, natural vegetable-oil-based anti-transpirant cum anti-stress product. It acts by reflecting more incident light than it would be reflected under normal conditions. Thus it reduces the loss of water from the plant and thereby helps to maintain the relative water content of the plant.

Pest Management

From time immemorial, insect pests and diseases have been our chief competitors for food and other agricultural produce. In the recent era of agricultural intensification, pest control strategies have relied chiefly on synthetic organic chemical pesticides. But the rapid evolution of insect pests under selection pressure from pesticides and the emergence of newer pests, have led to an energy-driven escalation in pest control technologies through the introduction of new chemicals every year, thus forcing agriculture onto the never-ending pesticide treadmill. Besides putting the sustainability of agriculture at stake, pesticides pose a public health concern through bio-accumulation in the food chain. It is now realized that the use of chemical pesticides is doing more harm than good to the biosphere. The changing perception in pest management thus demands newer, environmentally sound pest control tools. One alternative to the use of synthetic organic pesticides is to tap the help of various plants and entomopathogenic fungi which have evolved an astonishingly diverse array of active agents for fighting diseases and pests.

Neem is one of the plant species that can effectively and efficiently control more than 300 pest species, through it's unique mode of action, namely repellent, oviposition deterrent, anti-feedent, insect growth regulation and sterilent properties. Nimbecidine is a unique natural product and enormously helpful in the Integrated Pest Management system, because it is not an adulticide and does not harm the predators and parasites and does not pollute the environment.

The fungi that infect harmful insects called entomopathegenic fungi and their use as pest control agents has not only attained a prime place in the pest management practices but also become a potentially important alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Under natural conditions these fungi are a frequent and often important natural mortality factor in all groups of insect population and over 700 species of fungi have been recorded as pathogens to insects. The damaging effects of these entomogenous fungus on the target insects and their ability to cause epizootics offers exciting possibilities for use as mycoinsecticides for the control of insect pests of food crops naturally. Mycoinsecticides are formulated products with live conidia of hypomycetes fungi like Beauveria, Verticillium, Metarhizium, and Paecilomyces as the active ingredients. The conidia, on contact with the cuticle of the insect, germinate and establish a systemic infection leading to the death of the target insect without affecting the other beneficial natural enemies of the insect pest.

Disease Management

Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and display preferences for the specific environments and for interactions with specific host plants. They exhibit symbiotic or pathogenic interactions involving the phyllosphere microflora and those concerning endophytes depending on the type of plant with which they are associated. Plant diseases create challenging problems in commercial agriculture and pose real economic threats to both conventional and organic farming systems. Plant pathogens are difficult to manage for several reasons. Disease management is complicated by the presence of multiple types of pathogens. For any one crop the grower must deal with a variety of a plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria and viruses. This situation is even more complicated for organic vegetable growers because they usually produce a wide array of vegetable crops and are prohibited from applying conventional synthetic fungicides. The world market continues to be extremely competitive and continues to require that growers supply high-quality, disease-free produce with an acceptable shelf life. Disease management is therefore a critical consideration in vegetable production through organic and IPM means. In an organic system, it is appropriate to develop disease-control strategies that have an ecological basis. Antagonistic fungi (Trichoderma viride, Ampelomyces quisqualis, Chetomium globosum) and Antagonistic bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorscens, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus) possessing such disease control capabilities have gained importance recently, particularly in terms of their biocontrol efficiency for the benefit of the 'host' plant.


The contributing role played by different nutrients such as Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potash, Sulpher and other secondary elements in increasing the unit area productivity of land is well-recognized. But due to the modern intensive cultivation practices, which include hybrids and high yielding varieties which are highly fertilizer responsive results in these highly essential plant growth nutrients being removed from the soil in greater proportions.